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JSTOR helps people discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please contact email@example.com. 484 RAMSAY ON GEOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY. palisade there was an exterior gate, corresponding to the interior gate of the court. Every place was closed at nightfall. " The number of men, women and children, all more or less related to Joel, who assisted him in farming, was considerable. They lived in buildings dependent on the principal house, where they assembled at noon and evening, to take their meals in common. " Other habitations thus constructed, and occupied by numerous in- habitants, whom their lands maintained, were dispersed here and there throughout the country, and composed the lignez, or tribe of Karnak, of which Joel had been elected chief." Many amusing anecdotes are related of the manners and customs of the Gauls, none of which, however, rest on the statements of contemporar)' history. The only conclusion at which we can arrive is that they were a set of wretched savages ; and we think that the conquests which extirpated the Gaul to introduce the Frank, like those which destroyed the Briton to make room for the Saxon, were of the greatest benefit to humanity. The philosophy of Charles Darwin is most sound on this point. That the extirpation of the lower race should be the immediate cause of "the most exalted object which we are capable of conceiving, namely, the produc- tion of the higher animals,"* is a sound biological generalization. The historical event, that the autochthonous Gaulish race has been nearly " improved off" the face of the earth, we consider to have been conducive to the well-being of Western Europe. Now that such ideas as these are no longer confined to anthropologists, but are uttered by the politician, we have no doubt that such amusing and instructive works as that of M. Sue will be diligently perused, so long as they faithfully depict the struggles of a nation to attain an imprac- ticable liberty, or the futile efforts of a doomed race to maintain its position in the ethnic scale. RAMSAY ON GEOLOGY AND ANTHROrOLOGY.| Professor Ramsay's lectures, amongst the geologists for which they were destined, will inevitably receive the support they so emi- nently deserve. We believe that the whole work, and especially the * Darwin, Origin of Species, 1st edition, p. 489. + The Physical Geology and Geography of Great Britain; a Course of Six Lectures delivered to Working Men in the Museum of Practical Geology, Jermyn Street. By Professor A. C. Ramsay, F.E.S., President of the Geologicul Society. 8vo. London: Stanford. 1863. RAMSAY ON GEOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY. 485 second lecture, which treats of metamorphism and contortions of strata, may be indicated as a model series of elementary lectures, in which the author has adhered to the strict paths of logical science, while, by a charm of language, a lucidity of style, and a prudent abnegation of all unproven and unproveable hypotheses, Professor Ramsay has added new laurels to his geological fame. Scientific men will sooner or later learn that the " rapid and right " progress of truth is best advanced, not by the proposition of chimerical hypo- theses, or vague speculations, but by the diffusion of accurate and positive facts, inductively ascertained, amongst the thinking world. However tempting it may be to discuss Professor Ramsay's geological facts, we must pass them over in the attempt to answer the broad ques- tion, " What is the bearing of this work on anthropological science ?" After Professor Ramsay has discussed, in his sixth lecture, the more striking effects of the physical geology of the country on porjula- tion and industry, the following passage occurs : — " I would now wish to say a few words on the influence of geology upon the inhabitants of different parts of our island. " Great Britain is inhabited by two or three great races, more or less intermingled with one another. It requires but a cursory exam- ination to see that the barren districts, as a whole, are inhabited by two branches of one race, distinct from each other, and yet alike, while the more fertile parts are occupied by one or two other races. Thus the north of Scotland, beyond the great valley, is, as every one knows, chiefly inhabited by the Celtic Highlanders. On the east, along the coasts of the Moray Forth, Caithness, and in the Orkney and Shetland Islands, the people are of Scandinavian origin and speak Scotch, thus standing out in marked contrast from the Gaelic clans, who possess the wilder and higher grounds in the interior and western districts. There is here a curious relation of the human population to the geological character of the country. The Scan- dinavian element is strongly developed along the maritime tracts, which, being chiefly composed of Old Red Sandstone, stretch away in long and fertile lowlands, while the Celts are pretty closely restricted to the higher and bleaker tracts where the barren gneissic and schistose rocks prevail. " From an early period it appears that on both sides of the Channel, the Continent of Europe, and what is now Great Britain, were in- habited by a Celtic population, known to us in our history by the name of the Cimri, whom we call Welsh, or the ancient Britons. Further north another Celtic people, whom we know as the Gaels, inhabited the greater part of what is now termed Scotland, and, I believe, the whole of Ireland. Which of these two Celtic races is most ancient in our islands we seem unable clearly to make out ; there are a great many theories on the subject, but I do not think it has been proved to demonstration that one of them is later than the 486 HAMSATT ON GEOLOGY AND ANTHROrOLOGT. other. It is not improbable, however, that the Highlanders, who are now largely intermixed with a deal of Scandinavian blood, once spread further south than what is considered the southern borders of the Highlands, and were forced to retire northwards into their mountains, through the superior power of another Celtic population that worked its way northwards from the more fertile districts of England and south of Scotland, for no race would willingly inhabit an area composed of barren mountains if it could take up a position on more fertile lands. A great number of the names of places in the centre and south of Scotland are not Gaelic, but names that can be translated by any one who has even a comparatively superficial knowledge of Welsh, such as I happen to possess. It is therefore probable that the southern and midland parts were inhabited in old times by the same race of people that now inhabit the extreme west of England, or Wales. And to a certain extent this is proved by the ancient British literature. I use the word British as applied to Welsh literature. But however this may be, it is certain that the Britons or the Welsh tribe of Celts overspread at one time (when the Romans invaded our country) the whole of the southern part of Great Britain ; by and bye, after the Roman invasion, they mixed with their conquerors, but the Romans, as far as blood is concerned, seemed to have played but a very unimportant part in our country. They may have intermarried to some extent with the natives, but they occupied our country very much in the manner that we now occupy India. Corning here as military colonists, they went away again as soon as their time of service was up and left the country altogether. But after the retirement of the Romans, invasions took place by the Danes, the Scandinavian tribes, the Anglo-Saxons and others who came in to occupy the country permanently. Then the native tribes, dispossessed of their territories and driven westwards, retreated into the interior and higher parts of the country. Their remains are still extant in Devon and Cornwall, where there is a tolerably pure Celtic race, and among the Welsh mountains where the same Celtic ele- ment is still to a great extent free from admixture. They were driven back into the mountainous regions, whither it was not worth the while of their pursuers to follow them, in order to dispossess them of those barren tracts. Thus it happens that the oldest tribes now inhabiting our country are to be found among the old palaeozoic mountains, which, composed of the most ancient of our geological formations, and rising up into the highest grounds, must have been the first parts of the British islands to rise above the waters, during the last elevation of the land." The coincidence between the geological formation and the ethnic differences is at least remarkable. There was, however, a time when the Keltic races stretched over the mesozoic and cainozoic formations of Eastern England, when the present ethnic outliers of the Hebrides, Western Scotland, Man, Wales, and Cornwall, were all connected into one kindred population speaking a Keltic language. " Denuda- RAMSAY ON GEOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY. 487 tion " and " erosive action " have, however, rendered them a scattered people, while the mesozoic and cainozoic formations are filled with the modified and mixed descendants of the Jute and the Saxon. We hope that at some future time Professor ltamsay may work out the problems contained in his sixth chapter more in detail. He con- cludes in the following words : — " When we come to consider the nature of the population inhabit- ing our island, we find it also to be greatly influenced by this old geology. The aboriginal tribes have been driven into the more barren mountain regions in the north and west, and so remain to this day — speaking to a great extent their aboriginal languages, but gradually melting up with the great mass of mixed races that came in with later waves of conquest from other parts of Europe. These later races settling down in the more fertile parts of the country, began to develop its agricultural resources. In later times they have applied themselves with wonderful energy to turn to use the vast stores of mineral wealth which lie in the central districts. Hence have arisen those densely peopled towns and villages where the manufactures of the country are carried on. Yet in the west, too — in Devon, and Cornwall, and in Wales, where the great slate regions are — there are busy centres of population, where the mineral products are worked by the aboriginal inhabitants of Celtic origin. "It is interesting to go back a little and inquire what may have been the condition of our country when man first set foot upon its surface. We know that these islands of ours have been frequently united to the continent, and as frequently disunited, partly by eleva- tions and depressions of the land, and to a great extent, also, by denudations. When the earliest human population reached their plains, they were probably united to the continent. Such is the deliberate opinion of some of our best geologists. They do not assert it as a positive fact, but they consider it probable that these old pre- historic men inhabited our country along with the great hairy main- moth, the rhinoceros, the cave bear, the lion, and the hippopotamus, — that they travelled westwards from the Continent of Europe, along with these extinct mammalia, over that continuation of the land which originally united Great Britain to the Continent. But in later times denudations and alterations of level have taken place, chiefly, I believe, great denudations of the chalk, and of the strata that cover the chalk, and then our island has become disunited from the main- land. And now, with all its numerous inlets, its great extent of coast, its admirable harbours, our country lies within the direct influ- ence of the Gulf Stream, which influences the whole climate of the west of Europe, and we, a mixed race of people, Celt, Scandinavian, Saxon, Norman, more or less intermingled in blood, are so happily placed that, in a great measure, we have the command of the com- merce of Europe, and send out our fleets of merchandise from every port. We are happy, in my opinion, above all things in this, that by denudation we have been dissevered from the Continent of Europe, 488 BARUCH SPINOZA. for thus it happens that, uninfluenced by the immediate contact of hostile countries, and almost unbiassed by the influence of peoples of foreign blood, during the long course of years in which our country has never seen the foot of an invader, we have been enabled so to develope our own ideas of right and wrong, of political freedom, and of political morality, that we now stand here, the freest country on the face of the globe, enjoying our privileges, under the strongest and freest Government in the living world." BARUCH SPINOZA* Much of the scope of the present work is theological, and the prin- ciples on which the Anthropological Review is conducted preclude the discussion of theological subjects. The Tractalus Theologico- Politicus, however, contains much valuable information respecting purely scientific topics which have, since Baruch Spinoza gave to the ■world those profound works which will be for ever associated with his name, become even popular. As the learned and anonymous editor of the Tractatus observes : — " The Hindus preceded the Hebrews in civilization by hundreds, perhaps by thousands of years, and in their Vedas, which existed in writing centuries before the Jews became serfs to Egyptian task- masters, they have not only given us a clear insight into their religi- ous world, but have actually transmitted the record of this in the tongue which is the root of all the dialects spoken in Europe to the present day. It might have been that the Sanscrit Vedas had de- scended to us as our especial religious inheritance, when we should have had Brahm, Vichnou, and Siva as our triune divinity. The Zends, again, the religious books of the ancient Persians, are of great antiquity, and, as the Persians were nearer neighbours of the Jews than the Hindus, so do we find that they have influenced Jewish ideas in a much greater measure." Much credit is due to the editor, and especially to the publishers, who have produced this valuable work in a compendious form and at a cheap price. Many readers will gladly peruse it, if only to study the thoughts of an author whose terse and vigorous style has raised him for the last two hundred years to the position of the best-abused author in philosophy. We would very much like to see the Ethica of the same author published in the same manner as the present volume. * Tractatus Theologico-Politicus ; a Critical Inquiry into the History, Pur- pose, and Authenticity of the Hebrew Scriptures : with the right to free thought and free discussion asserted, and shewn to he not only consistent, hut necessarily bound up with true piety and good government. By Benedict de Spinoza. From the Latin ; with an Introduction and Notes by the Editor. 8vo. London : Triibner and Co. 1862.